We can go round and round about this for another month, and by the way, your denial of established science is as stubborn as you claim Shooter is. In any case, read the following; http://web.mit.edu/racescience/in_media/what_dna_says_about_human/ This is a long article, but let me cut to the chase; Not only is our concept of race arbitrary, but it is based on a relatively insignificant difference between people. Skin pigment, eye shape, and hair type are all determined by genes. Indeed, as the human genome is mapped, geneticists might be able to reconstruct what mummies or other ancient people looked like. But the physical ''stereotypes'' of race, writes Cavalli-Sforza, ''reflect superficial differences.'' For example, light skin color is needed in northern climates for the sun's ultra- violet light to penetrate into the body and transform vitamin D into a usable form. This mutation may well have arisen at different times, in different ancestral groups, on different points along the DNA. That's true for cystic fibrosis, which occurs almost exclusively in people of European descent but is caused by several different mutations. In other words, ''white people'' do not share a common genetic heritage; instead, they come from different lineages that migrated from Africa and Asia. Such mixing is true for every race. ''All living humans go back to one common ancestor in Africa,'' explains Paabo. ''But if you look at any history subsequent to that,'' then every group is a blend of shallower pedigrees. So, he says, ''I might be closer in my DNA to an African than to another European in the street.'' Genetics, he concludes, ''should be the last nail in the coffin for racism.'' That's the utopian view. But there are still scientists who claim that inferior genes plague certain races. J. Phillipe Rushton, a professor of psychology at Canada's University of Western Ontario, publishes books and articles claiming that ''Negroids'' have, on average, smaller brains, lower intelligence, more ''aggressiveness,'' and less ''sexual restraint'' than ''Caucasoids'' or ''Mongoloids.'' Rushton's views are on the extreme fringe, but even in mainstream genetics, largely discredited concepts of race persist. Scientific articles constantly speak of ''admixture'' between races, which implies a pure and static standard for each race. ''Where did these standards come from?'' asks Jackson. ''We've taken a 19th-century view of racial variation and plugged in 20th-century technology.'' Indeed, the whole notion of racial standards—of a pure Caucasian or a pure Negro—is exactly what modern genetics undermines. But, says Jackson, ''the philosophy hasn't caught up with the technology.''